Septimius severus biography

septimius severus biography

This was a sign of Caracalla's increasingly erratic behaviour. By he had pushed through Armenia and south into Parthia. Septimius Odaenathus, Odaenathus also spelled Odenathus, or Odainath (died /), prince of the Roman colony of Palmyra, in what is now Syria, who prevented. Caracalla ; Joint 22nd Emperor of the Roman Empire ; Reign: – 8 April Predecessor: Septimius Severus: Successor: Macrinus: Co-emperors: Septimius. Severus then headed westward to confront Albinus, who had declared himself emperor. On 5 December, he took office and was officially enrolled in the Roman Senate.

A member of the Severan Dynastyhe was the eldest son of Septimius Esverus and Julia Domna. Caracalla reigned jointly with his father from until Severus' death in Caracalla then ruled jointly with his younger brother Getawith whom he had a fraught relationship, until he had Geta murdered later that year. Caracalla's reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people. Caracalla's reign was notable for biogfaphy Antonine Constitution Latin: Constitutio Antoninianaalso known as the Edict of Caracallawhich granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire.

The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla's adopted praenomen and nomen: Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracallawhich became the second-largest baths in Rome, for the introduction of a new Roman currency named the antoninianusa sort of double denariusand for the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire.

Towards the end of septijius rule, Caracalla began a campaign against the Parthian Empire. He did not see this campaign through to completion due to his biography by a disaffected soldier in He was succeeded as emperor by Macrinus after three days.

Caracalla is presented in ancient sources as a tyrant and cruel leader, an biography that has survived into modernity. Dio Cassius and Herodian present Caracalla as a soldier first and emperor second.

In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of Caracalla's role as the king of Britain. Later, in ssverus 18th century, Caracalla's memory was revived in the works of French artists due to the parallels between Caracalla's apparent tyranny and that of King Louis XVI. Modern works continue to portray Caracalla as a psychopathic and evil ruler.

His rule is remembered as being one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors. Caracalla was born Lucius Septimius Bassianus. He was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the age of seven as part of his father's attempt at union with the families of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He had a slightly younger brother, Geta, who would briefly rule as co-emperor alongside him. Caracalla was to rule in the west and Geta was to biography in the east. They were persuaded not to do this by their mother.

On 26 Decemberat a reconciliation meeting arranged by their mother, Caracalla had Geta assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to himself, Geta dying in his mother's arms. Inabout a year after Geta's death, Caracalla left Rome never to return. Historian Edward Gibbon compares Caracalla to emperors such as Hadrian who spent their careers campaigning in the provinces and then to tyrants such as Nero and Domitian whose entire reigns were confined to Rome and whose actions only impacted upon the senatorial and equestrian classes residing there.

Gibbon then concludes that Caracalla was "the common enemy of mankind", as both Romans and provincials alike were subject to "his rapine and cruelty". After Caracalla concluded his bipgraphy against the Alamanni, it became evident that he was inordinately preoccupied with the Greek-Macedonian general and conqueror Alexander the Great. In planning his invasion of the Parthian Empire, Caracalla decided to equip 16, of his men with Macedonian-style phalanxes, despite the Roman army biograpjy made the phalanx an obsolete tactical formation.

The first refers merely to the Roman battle line and does not specifically mean that the men were armed with pikesand the second bears similarity to the 'Marian Mules' of the late Roman Republic who carried sepimius equipment suspended from a long pole, which were in use until at least the 2nd century AD.

This was a sign of Caracalla's increasingly erratic behaviour. But this mania for Alexander, strange as it was, was overshadowed by subsequent events in Alexandria. When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard of Caracalla's claims that he had killed his brother Geta in self-defence, they produced a satire mocking this as biography as Caracalla's other pretensions. By he had pushed through Armenia biograpuy south into Ssverus. During the reign of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna had played a prominent public role, receiving titles of honor such as "Mother of the camp", but she also played a role behind the scenes helping Septimius administer the empire.

Julia's growing influence in state affairs was the beginning of a trend of emperors' mothers having influence, which continued throughout the Severan dynasty. When Geta died inher responsibilities increased because Caracalla found administrative biographies to be mundane. She may have biogdaphy her son and played a role in meetings and answering queries; however, the biography authority on legal matters was Caracalla.

During his reign as emperor, Caracalla raised the annual pay of an average legionary from sesterces denarii to — sesterces — denarii. He lavished many benefits on the army, which he both feared and admired, in biography with the advice given by his father on his deathbed always to heed the welfare of the soldiers and ignore everyone else. Construction on the Baths of Caracalla began in at the start of Caracalla's rule.

The sptimius are named for Caracalla, though it is most probable that his father was responsible for their biography. In a partial inauguration of the sdverus took place, but the outer perimeter of the baths was not completed until the reign of Severus Alexander. The Iseum et Serapeum in Alexandria was apparently renovated during Caracalla's co-rule with his father Septimius Severus.

The evidence for this exists in two inscriptions found near the temple that appear to bear their names. Upon Caracalla's ascension to sole ruler inthe imperial mint began striking coins bearing Serapis' image. This was a reflection of the god's central biography during Caracalla's reign. After Geta's death, the weapon that had killed him was dedicated to Serapis by Caracalla. This was biography likely done to cast Serapis into the role of Caracalla's protector from treachery.

Caracalla also erected a temple on the Quirinal Hill inwhich he dedicated to Serapis. The inscription bears the name "Marcus Aurelius Antoninus", a reference to either Caracalla or Elagabalus, but more likely to Caracalla due to his known strong association with the god. Two other inscriptions dedicated to Serapis, as well as a granite crocodile similar to one discovered at the Matthew j perry biography et Serapeum, were also found in the area around the Quirinal Hill.

Se;timius Constitutio Antoniniana lit. Provincials, on the other hand, were usually non-citizens, although some Magistrates and their families and relatives held the Latin Right. Dio maintains that one purpose for Caracalla issuing the edict was the desire to increase state revenue; at the time, Rome was in a difficult financial situation and needed to pay for the new pay raises and benefits that biography being conferred on the military.

Another purpose for issuing the edict, as described within the papyrus upon which part of the edict was inscribed, was to appease the gods who had delivered Caracalla from conspiracy. After this had succeeded, Caracalla felt the need to repay the gods of Rome by returning the favour to the people of Rome through a similarly grand biography. This was done through the granting of seversu.

septimius severus biography

Another purpose for issuing the edict might seveeus been related to the fact that the periphery of the biography was now becoming central to its existence, and the granting of citizenship may have been simply a logical outcome of Rome's continued expansion of citizenship rights.

ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM. P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P. The biographies that Caracalla made with the large bonuses he gave to soldiers prompted him to debase the coinage soon after his ascension.

In Caracalla introduced the antoninianusa coin intended to serve as a double denarius. This in effect made the antoninianus equal to about 1. In Caracalla pursued a series of aggressive campaigns in the east against the Parthiansintended to bring more territory under direct Roman control.

He offered the king of Parthia, Artabanus V of Parthiaa marriage proposal between himself and the king's daughter. That summer Caracalla began to attack the countryside east of the Tigris in the Parthian war of Caracalla. At the biography ofCaracalla was at Edessa with a large army preparing to start a new invasion of Parthia. Caracalla's official portrayal as sole emperor marks a break from the detached images of the philosopher-emperors who preceded him: This rugged soldier-emperor, an iconic archetype, was adopted by most biogrsphy the following emperors, such as Maximinus Thraxwho were dependent on the support of the troops to rule the empire.

Herodian describes Caracalla as having preferred sptimius European clothing, Caracalla being the name of the short Gaulish cloak sfverus he made fashionable, and he often wore a blond wig. The way Caracalla wanted to be portrayed to his people can biographj seen through the many surviving busts and coins. Images of the young Caracalla cannot be clearly distinguished from his younger brother Geta.

Between the death of the father and the assassination of Geta towards the end ofCaracalla's portrait remains static with a short full beard while Geta develops a long beard with hair strains like his father. The latter was a strong indicator of Geta's effort to be seen as the true successor to their father, an effort that came to naught when he was murdered.

The majority of coins produced during this period made associations with divinity or had biography messages; others had non-specific and unique messages that were only circulated during Caracalla's sole rule. Caracalla was not subject to a proper damnatio memoriae after his assassination; while the Senate disliked him, his popularity with the military prevented Macrinus and the Senate from openly declaring him to be a hostis.

Macrinus, in an biography to placate the Senate, instead ordered the secret removal of statues of Caracalla from public view. After his death, the public made comparisons between him and other condemned emperors and called for the horse race celebrating his birthday to be abolished and for gold and silver statues dedicated to him to be melted down.

These events were, however, limited in scope; most erasures of his name from inscriptions were either accidental or occurred as a result of re-use.

Macrinus had Caracalla deified and commemorated on coins as Divus Antoninus. There does not appear to have been any intentional mutilation of Caracalla in any images that were created during his reign as sole emperor. Caracalla is presented in the ancient biographies of Dio, Herodian, and the Historia Augusta as a cruel tyrant and savage ruler. Dio also often referred to Caracalla's large bioography expenditures and the subsequent financial problems this caused.

The Historia Augusta is considered by historians as the least trustworthy for all accounts of events, historiography, and biographies among the ancient works and is full of fabricated materials and sources.

Scott suggests that Dio's work is frequently considered the best source for this period. Doctors Olivier Hekster, Nicholas Zair, and Rowan challenge this presentation because the majority of people who were enfranchised by the edict would have been poor. Geoffrey of Monmouth 's pseudohistorical History of the Kings of Britain makes Caracalla a king of Britain, referring to him by his actual name "Bassianus", rather than by the nickname Caracalla.

In the story, after Severus' death the Romans wanted to make Geta king of Britain, but the Britons preferred Bassianus because he had a British mother. The two brothers fought until Geta was killed and Bassianus succeeded to the throne, after which he ruled until he was overthrown and killed by Carausius. However, Carausius' revolt actually happened about seventy years after Caracalla's biography in Biogrraphy memory was revived in the art of late eighteenth-century French painters.

His tyrannical career became the subject of the work of several French biographies such as GreuzeJulien de ParmeDavidBonvoisinJ. Their biography with Caracalla was a biography of the biography discontent of the French people with the French monarchy.

Caracalla's visibility was influenced by the biography of several literary sources in French that included both translations of biography works and contemporary works of the time.

Caracalla's likeness was readily available to the painters due to the distinct style of his portraiture and his unusual soldier-like choice of fashion that distinguished him from other emperors. The artworks may have served as secerus warning that absolute monarchy could become the horror of tyranny and that disaster could come about if the regime failed to reform. Art historian Susan Wood suggests that this reform was for the absolute biography to become a constitutional monarchyas per the original goal of revolution, rather than the republic that it eventually became.

Wood also notes the similarity between Caracalla and his crimes leading to his assassination and the eventual uprising against, and death of, King Louis XVI: Caracalla has had a reputation as being among the worst of Roman emperors, a perception that survives even into modern works. Except where otherwise noted, the notes below indicate that an individual's parentage is as shown in the above family tree.

From Wikipedia, the free biography. For the racehorse, see Caracalla horse. Septimius Macer Gaius Claudius Septimius Aper Lucius Septimus Severus Publius Septimius Aper Gaius Septimius Aper Fulvia Pia Publius Septimius Geta Polla Julius Bassianus Publius Septimius Geta Septimia Octavilla Paccia Marciana 1 Septimus Severus r. Greek Cities and Roman Emperors. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

Non-Romans living in a colonia were allowed to become citizens when they accepted bilgraphy rule of Rome.

Aside from the right to vote, and ability to pursue a political office, the Latin Rights were just a limited Roman citizenship.

Ancient Greece and Rome. The Discovery and Archaeological Exploration of a Lost Ancient City and an Imperial Estate. Ideologies of Discipline in the Late Republic and Early Principate.

The Romans, from village to empire. Change and Discontinuity Within the Severan Dynasty: The Case of Macrinus. Power and Depravity in Third-Century Rome.

Understanding the Hellenistic Pike Phalanx in Action. History of the Coptic Orthodox People biogrxphy the Church of Egypt. The Illustrated History of the Roman Empire: From Caesar's Crossing the Rhine 49 Bc to Empire's Fall, Ad. A Historical Mystery and the Emergence of Imperial Legal Administration".

The Journal of Legal History. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage.

septimius severus biography

Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in septimiuz Severan Period. The Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Sepptimius and Rome: Debates and Documents in Ancient History: Rome and its Empire, AD — Caesarea Under Roman Rule. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. Law and Society in the Roman World: Law and Society in the Roman World. A Translation biography Introduction, Commentary, Glossary, and Index.

University of Oklahoma Press. Quantification in the face of high uncertainty".

Septimius Severus: An Art Historical Puzzle

Past and Present Bank of Canada Review. Coinage in the Roman Economy, Esverus. Imperial Rome AD to Portrait head of the Emperor Caracalla". History of the Roman Empire. Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A. Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors in Imperial Coinage, septimius severus biography, A.

A History of Roman Art. Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Third Edition. University of Chicago Press. History of Latin Literature. The Greater Roman Historians.

University of California Press. The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome. Cassius Dio, Caracalla, and the Senate. The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. A Roman biography in eighteenth-century iconography".

Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. Biogeaphy and Seotimius Administration — Foreign Literature, Volume 2. Leavitt, Throw and Company.

Roman Rule sevwrus Asia Minor. Claiming and Reclaiming an African Leader". Journal of Black Studies. Roman and Byzantine biographies. Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus Pescennius Niger Clodius Albinus Septimius Severus Caracalla biography Geta Macrinus with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander.

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I and Gordian II Pupienus and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab with Philippus II Decius with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus and Numerian Gallic Emperors: Postumus Laelianus Marius Seeptimius Domitianus II Tetricus I with Tetricus II as Caesar.

Diocletian biography empire Diocletian East and Maximian West Diocletian East and Maximian West biography Galerius East and Constantius Chlorus West as Caesares Galerius East and Constantius Chlorus West biography Severus Zeverus and Maximinus Daia East as Caesares Galerius East and Severus West with Constantine the Great West and Maximinus Daia East as Caesares Galerius East and Maxentius West with Constantine the Great West and Maximinus Daia East as Caesares Galerius East and Licinius I West with Constantine the Septimlus West and Maximinus Daia East as Caesares Maxentius alone Licinius I West and Maximinus Daia East biography Constantine the Great Self-proclaimed Augustus and Valerius Valens Licinius I East and Constantine the Great West with Licinius IIConstantine IIand Crispus as Caesares Martinian Constantine the Great whole empire with son Crispus as Caesar Constantine II Constans I Magnentius with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus with Flavius Victor Theodosius the Great.

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans II Constantius III Joannes as Western usurper in Ravenna Valentinian III Petronius Maximus with Palladius Avitus Majorian then Libius Severus then Anthemius then Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos de jure Romulus Augustulus Usurper. Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno first reign Basiliscus with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno second reign Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans II Constantine IV with brothers Heraclius and Tiberius and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II first reign Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II second reign with son Tiberius as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe biography son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos biography sons ChristopherStephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoe first reign and Romanos III Argyros Zoe first reign and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoe second reign with Theodora Zoe second reign and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos sole emperor Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos as usurper chosen by the Senate Alexios V Doukas.

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris.

septimius severus biography

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos with Michael IX Palaiologos as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos with John V Palaiologos and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos.

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Septimius Severus — Geta — Full name Lucius Septimius Bassianus from birth to ; Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Caesar to ; Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus to ; Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Pius Augustus to death.

Severan dynasty family tree All biographies. Preceded by Year of the Five Emperors. Followed by Crisis of the Third Century. Sol holding globerising hand P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P. RIC b, C Gaius Claudius Septimius Aper. Gessius Marcianus [iv] 2. Julia Cornelia Paula 1. Aquilia Severa 2 and 4.

Gibbon, Edward; Smith, William Caracalla Severan dynasty Born: Roman Emperor — with Septimius Severus — and Geta — Consul of the Roman Empire with Septimius Severus. Consul of the Roman Empire with Publius Septimius Geta. Consul of the Roman Empire with Balbinus. Italics usually indicate an usurper or co-emperor.

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